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Working Hard or Hardly Working

Leah Tharakan

Edited by Saniya Koppikar, and Vedanth Ramabhadran

In recent years, the popularity of remote work has increased significantly, partly due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the need to accommodate for social distancing measures. Despite the pandemic’s end, the transformative shift towards remote work has altered traditional employment and organizational structures significantly, trading in one set of problems for new legal implications. The increasing prevalence of remote work requires the rewiring of existing laws but also calls for the reform of legal principles concerning employment contracts and workplace protections. Understanding the legal ramifications of remote work becomes increasingly important to address the immediate challenges and to lay the groundwork for legal frameworks that align with the evolving nature of work in contemporary society.

The issue of employment contracts in remote work introduces a conversation between state-specific regulations and a decentralized workforce. State laws significantly impact various aspects of employee compensation, such as overtime, minimum wage, taxes, and disclosure requirements. For example, North Carolina law requires terminated employees to receive their final salary until their next regular payday [1]. However, this requirement is in stark contrast to the immediate payment requirement imposed on remote employers in California upon termination. Contractual obligations for work-related expenses add additional complexities to the remote work landscape. As of February 2023, nine states and the District of Columbia require employers to reimburse certain work-related expenses. For example, a remote employee living in Illinois may be eligible for reimbursement for remote work-related expenses such as printer ink and paper. The geographic location of remote workers also becomes important in the context of withholding and unemployment taxes. Employers may be required to pay these taxes to the states in which the employees perform their duties. The complexities arising from state-specific regulations, contractual obligations for work-related expenses, and tax implications underscore the critical importance for employers to diligently navigate the intricacies of employment contracts in the remote work landscape. As the legal landscape continues to evolve in response to the surge of remote work, it becomes increasingly imperative for employers to ensure compliance with varying state laws and contractual obligations, safeguarding the rights and responsibilities of both employers and employees in this decentralized workforce environment.

Rights of remote workers extend to their homes as employers must comply with general workplace health and safety obligations under state and federal laws [2]. These obligations also include remote arrangements where employers are responsible for risks that may come from materials, equipment or work processes provided or used by remote workers. Employers are responsible for ensuring that items provided to remote employees, such as computers, power strips and office furniture, meet safety standards, and must provide comprehensive training on their correct use. Encouraging remote employees to report workplace incidents and unsafe working conditions promotes a culture of safety and responsibility in the remote work environment. Additionally, enforcing workers' compensation laws becomes complicated when employees work remotely or across state lines. An employer's insurance obligations often depend on the specific laws of the state in which the employee works, which requires a detailed understanding of applicable workers' compensation laws. While insurance requirements vary, determining coverage for injuries resulting from remote work is less straightforward. An accident at work is an injury that occurs while performing paid work and is directly related to the performance of official duties. For example, an employee who injured their back while carrying boxes of documents from the front door to their home office may suffer a compensable workplace injury. However, an injury sustained while performing personal duties during work hours, such as tripping on a curb while walking the dog, is less likely to qualify for workers' compensation benefits. Employers should ensure that remote workers understand the company's reporting process and their own obligation to report workplace injuries. Navigating workplace health and safety obligations, as well as workers' compensation laws, is essential for employers to ensure the well-being and protection of remote workers.

The rise of remote work incurred by the COVID-19 pandemic has ushered in a new era of employment practices, radically changing the dynamics of traditional work [3]. As companies adapt to these changes, companies must consider the legal outcomes that arise from transitions to remote work, from employment contracts and workplace protections to health and safety regulations and workers' compensation laws. The evolution of remote work raises questions about employment laws from state-to-state, contractual obligations, and tax consequences, highlighting the importance for employers to carefully manage these issues. Because remote work extends workplace rights to employees' homes, employers also have a responsibility to ensure compliance with comprehensive workplace health and safety obligations under state and federal laws. This includes minimizing risks associated with materials, equipment, or workflows used by remote workers and providing comprehensive training on their correct use. However, navigating the nuances of workers' compensation law related to remote work presents unique challenges. Determining coverage for remote work injuries requires an in-depth analysis of various factors, including the nature of the injury and its direct relationship to work tasks. Ultimately, it will become increasingly important for employers to prioritize compliance with various state laws and contractual obligations as the legal landscape evolves in response to increased remote work. By protecting the rights and responsibilities of employers and employees, companies can create a supportive and compliant environment that promotes the well-being and protection of remote workers in the modern workforce to ensure the most productive work, even if it’s from the comfort of home.


[1] Payment of Final Wages to Separated Employees | NC DOL, (last visited Apr 16, 2024).

[2] Possible Legal Implications of remote work | Chambers Expert Focus, (last visited Apr 16, 2024).

[3] Which Employment Laws Apply to Employees Who Are Remote?, Employment and Commerce Law Group, (last visited Apr 16, 2024).

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